But on condition that the different be parliamentary-democratic, pro-free-market economics, in favour of freedom of opinion, feminism, the environment… That is to say: It becomes more interesting and original, however, when read from the perspective of his philosophical engagement with discourses of ethics in postwar thought.
For this is to pretend that a merely contingent state of things can found a Law. Respect for differences, of course! Rather, this is philosophy in the Greek sense of the word annulled by theology, itself no longer a theology the terminology is still too Greek, and presumes the proximity to the divine via the identity and predicates of God but precisely, an ethics.
Considered in their simple belonging to a situation to an infinite multiplethe animals of the species Homo Sapiens are ordinary multiplicities. It is in the Jewish tradition that Levinas finds the basis for this pushing over.
The phenomenon of the other his face must then attest to a radical alterity which he nevertheless does not contain by himself. The only genuine ethics is of truths in the plural—or, more precisely, the only ethics is of processes of truth, of the labour that brings some truth into the world.
Every human animal, by participating in a given singular truth, is inscribed in one of these four types.
From this point of departure are deduced laws in the plural of the City and of action. I have already named in that regard to which only the advent of the Same occurs: Every modern collective configuration involves people from everywhere, who have their different ways of eating and speaking, who wear different sorts of headgear, follow different religions, have complex and varied relations to sexuality, prefer authority or disorder, and such is the way of the world.
Ethics according to Levinas Roughly speaking: This Law of the Other might be opposed to the laws of the real. Levinas maintains that metaphysics, imprisoned by its Greek origins, has subordinated thought to the logic of the Same, to the primacy of substance and identity.
In fact, every situation, inasmuch as it is, is a multiple composed of an infinity of elements, each one of which is itself a multiple.
But this coexistence is not unification—that is why it is impossible to speak of one Ethics. Even the apparently reflexive experience of myself is by no means the intuition of a unity but a labyrinth of differentiations, and Rimbaud was certainly not wrong when he said: First, the volume is quite accessible, since, as Badiou remarks, it was originally written for "a series aimed at secondary-school and university students" liii —although I suspect that the less philosophically-oriented American student would probably still have difficulty with it until the advanced undergraduate level.
There can be no Other if he is not the immediate phenomenon of the Altogether Other. We need, in addition, to make explicit the axioms of thought that decide an orientation.
Second, the book is ably translated by Peter Hallward, who also provides a clear introduction that situates the argument in more familiar theoretical terrain, with references to the ethics of Derrida and Spivak.
As many, but also, then neither more nor less. We might say that Levinas is the coherent and inventive thinker of an assumption that no academic exercise of veiling or abstraction can obscure: Essays on Judaism, trans.Mar 08, · The following essay describes the problem of evil in relation to God, examines Christian responses to the problem, and concludes the existence of God and the existence of evil are fully compatible.
Body “The problem of evil is often divided between the logical and evidential. St Augustine and the Understanding of Evil. Introduction St Augustine took a very interesting position on the debate surrounding the problem of evil and the existence of God.
- In the Confessions, Augustine wrote about his struggle with understanding how evil exists in a world created by God. He questioned how it was possible and why God allows evil in his creations because God is supremely good.
The Possibility of Evil Essays] Better Essays words | ( pages) | Preview. Gender Stereotypes and Evil in. Ethics, An Essay on the Understanding of Evil, Alain Badiou –––––– Alain Badiou Ethics, An Essay on the Understanding of Evil Chapter II: Does the Other Ex. Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil by Alain Badiou.
Translated by Peter Hallward. London and New York: Verso, Pp. $ cloth.
Badiou is probably the most famous French philosopher not to have a major following in the Anglo-American academy—although this situation is. Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil.Download